Exp Ther Med. 2020 Feb;19(2):1554-1559. doi: 10.3892/etm.2019.8389. Epub 2019 Dec 27.
Bioactive components from garlic on brain resiliency against neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration.
Garlic (Allium sativum) has been widely used for culinary and medicinal purposes. Aged garlic extract (AGE) and sulfur-containing compounds, including S-allylcysteine (SAC) are well documented botanical active components of garlic.
AGE is prepared by the prolonged extraction of fresh garlic with aqueous ethanol and is considered a nutritional supplement with potential to promote human health. SAC is a water-soluble organosulfur compound and the most abundant component of AGE.
Studies have demonstrated that both AGE and SAC can exert neuroprotective effects against neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration.
Another bioactive component in AGE is N-α-(1-deoxy-D-fructos-1-yl)-L-arginine (FruArg) although less is known about the metabolic activity of this compound. The main aim of this review was to provide an undated overview of the neuroprotective perspectives of these active garlic components (AGE, SAC and FruArg). Of interest, our studies and those of others indicate that both AGE and FruArg are involved in the regulation of gene transcription and protein expression.
AGE has been shown to reverse 67% of the transcriptome alteration induced by endotoxins-lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and FruArg has been shown to account for the protective effects by reversing 55% of genes altered in a cell-based neuroinflammation paradigm stimulated by LPS in murine BV-2 microglial cells. AGE and FruArg can alleviate neuroinflammatory responses through a variety of signaling pathways, such as Toll-like receptor and interleukin (IL)-6 signaling, as well as by upregulating the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-mediated oxidative stress pathways known to promote microglial resiliency against neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. The capability of FruArg to pass through the blood-brain barrier further supports its potential as a therapeutic compound. In summary, these experimental results provide new insight into the understanding of the neuroprotective effects of garlic components in promoting brain resiliency for health benefits.
Foods. 2019 Jul 5;8(7). pii: E246. doi: 10.3390/foods8070246.
Bioactive Compounds and Biological Functions of Garlic (Allium sativum L.).
Garlic (Allium sativum L.) is a widely consumed spice in the world. Garlic contains diverse bioactive compounds, such as allicin, alliin, diallyl sulfide, diallyl disulfide, diallyl trisulfide, ajoene, and S-allyl-cysteine.
Substantial studies have shown that garlic and its bioactive constituents exhibit antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal, immunomodulatory, cardiovascular protective, anticancer, hepatoprotective, digestive system protective, anti-diabetic, anti-obesity, neuroprotective, and renal protective properties.
In this review, the main bioactive compounds and important biological functions of garlic are summarized, highlighting and discussing the relevant mechanisms of actions. Overall, garlic is an excellent natural source of bioactive sulfur-containing compounds and has promising applications in the development of functional foods or nutraceuticals for the prevention and management of certain diseases.
Exp Ther Med. 2020 Feb;19(2):1522-1527. doi: 10.3892/etm.2019.8384. Epub 2019 Dec 27.
Prevention of arachidonic acid-induced liver injury by controlling oxidative stress-mediated transglutaminase activation with garlic extracts.
Garlic and its sulfur constituents have numerous biological functions, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, anticancer, antidiabetic and cardioprotective effects. Fatty liver diseases, such as non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, which is characterized by the accumulation of lipids and oxidative stress in hepatocytes and continual liver damage, has attracted much attention, and it is believed that it will become the leading etiology of liver cancer.
We have previously reported that the growth-suppressive effects of arachidonic acid (AA), an unsaturated fatty acid known to be a pro-inflammatory precursor, is accompanied by the production of reactive oxygen species followed by the nuclear accumulation and activation of the protein crosslinking enzyme, transglutaminase (TG)2.
In this study, we examined the potential role of garlic extracts in preventing the growth-suppressive effects of AA on human hepatic cells. We also aimed to provide a mechanistic insight regarding the association between the hepatoprotective effects of garlic extract and the inhibition of the TG-related crosslinking of nuclear proteins, which is not associated with hepatic lipid partitioning mediated by stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1. Given the critical roles of unsaturated fatty acids in the regulation of cancer cell stemness and immune surveillance in the context of chronic injury, we propose that garlic extracts may serve as a therapeutic option for the prevention of chronic liver injury and inflammation, as well as for the prevention of the carcinogenesis of fatty livers.
Int J Mol Sci. 2020 Feb 6;21(3). pii: E1090. doi: 10.3390/ijms21031090.
Effect of S-Allyl -L-Cysteine on MCF-7 Cell Line 3-Mercaptopyruvate Sulfurtransferase/Sulfane Sulfur System, Viability and Apoptosis.
The S-Allyl-L-cysteine (SAC) component of aged garlic extract (AGE) is proven to have anticancer, antihepatotoxic, neuroprotective and neurotrophic properties. -Cystathionase (CTH), cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (MPST) are involved in H2S/sulfane sulfur endogenous formation from L-cysteine.
The aim of the study was to determine the effect of SAC on MCF-7 cells survival and apoptosis, which is a widely known approach to reduce the number of cancer cells. An additional goal of this paper was to investigate the effect of SAC on the activity and expression of enzymes involved in H2S production. The experiments were carried out in the human breast adenocarcinoma cell line MCF-7. Changes in the cell viability were determined by MTT assay. Cell survival was determined by flow cytometry (FC). Changes in enzymes expression were analyzed using Western blot. After 24 h and 48 h incubation with 2245 µM SAC, induction of late apoptosis was observed. A decrease in cell viability was observed with increasing SAC concentration and incubation time. SAC had no significant cytotoxic effect on the MCF-7 cells upon all analyzed concentrations. CTH, MPST and CBS expression were confirmed in non-treated MCF-7 cells. Significant decrease in MPST activity at 2245 µM SAC after 24 h and 48 h incubation vs. 1000 µM SAC was associated with decrease in sulfane sulfur levels.
The presented results show promising SAC effects regarding the deterioration of the MCF-7 cells' condition in reducing their viability through the downregulation of MPST expression and sulfate sulfur level reduction.
J Agric Food Chem. 2019 Jul 17;67(28):7926-7934. doi: 10.1021/acs.jafc.9b03269. Epub 2019 Jul 9.
Characterization of Key Aroma-Active Compounds in Black Garlic by Sensory-Directed Flavor Analysis
Black garlic is a new garlic product produced through fermentation of fresh garlic and is very popular in Asia countries due to its health benefits. Its key aroma-active compounds were characterized by gas chromatography-olfactometry-mass spectrometry (GC-O-MS), gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOFMS), and sensory evaluation. In total 52 aroma compounds were identified, and 15 of them with high flavor dilution (FD) factors based on aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) were selected and quantitated. Finally, 9 key aroma-active compounds, including acetic acid (sour), allyl methyl trisulfide (cooked garlic), Furaneol (caramel), diallyldisulfide (garlic), diallyltrisulfide (sulfur), (E,Z)-2,6-nonadien-1-ol (cucumber), 3-methylbutanoic acid (sweat), 5-heptyldihydro-2(3H)-furanone (apricot), and diallyl sulfide (garlic), were determined through aroma recombination and omission experiment. In addition to the sulfur-containing compounds, heterocyclic compounds were the major aroma contributors in black garlic. Sensory evaluation revealed that the flavor profile of black garlic mainly consisted of sulfur, sour, sweet, fresh, sauce, gasoline, and roasted odors.
Nutrients. 2019 Nov 10;11(11). pii: E2724. doi: 10.3390/nu11112724.
Z-ajoene from Crushed Garlic Alleviates Cancer-Induced Skeletal Muscle Atrophy.
Skeletal muscle atrophy is one of the major symptoms of cancer cachexia.
Garlic (Allium sativum), one of the world's most commonly used and versatile herbs, has been employed for the prevention and treatment of diverse diseases for centuries. In the present study, we found that ajoene, a sulfur compound found in crushed garlic, exhibits protective effects against muscle atrophy.
Using CT26 tumor-bearing BALB/c mice, we demonstrate in vivo that ajoene extract alleviated muscle degradation by decreasing not only myokines secretion but also janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (JAK/STAT3) and SMADs/forkhead box (FoxO) signaling pathways, thereby suppressing muscle-specific E3 ligases. In mouse skeletal myoblasts, Z-ajoene enhanced myogenesis as evidenced by increased expression of myogenic markers via p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation.
In mature myotubes, Z-ajoene protected against muscle protein degradation induced by conditioned media from CT26 colon carcinoma cells, by suppressing expression of muscle specific E3 ligases and nuclear transcription factor kappa B (NF-κB) phosphorylation which contribute to muscle atrophy. Moreover, Z-ajoene treatment improved myofiber formation via stimulation of muscle protein synthesis. These findings suggest that ajoene extract and Z-ajoene can attenuate skeletal muscle atrophy induced by cancer cachexia through suppressing inflammatory responses and the muscle wasting as well as by promoting muscle protein synthesis.