J Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs. 2017 Sep 29. doi: 10.1097/WON.0000000000000374. [Epub ahead of print]

Adjunctive Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Healing of Chronic Diabetic Foot Ulcers: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

Chen CY1, Wu RWHsu MCHsieh CJChou MC.

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The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of standard wound care with adjunctive hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) to standard wound care alone on wound healing, markers of inflammation, glycemic control, amputation rate, survival rate of tissue, and health-related quality of life in patients with diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs).


Prospective, randomized, open-label, controlled study.


The sample comprised 38 patients with non healing DFUs who were deemed poor candidates for vascular surgery. Subjects were randomly allocated to an experimental group (standard care plus HBOT, n = 20) or a control group (standard care alone, n = 18). The study setting was a medical center in Kaohsiung City, Taiwan.


Hyperbaric oxygen therapy was administered in a hyperbaric chamber under 2.5 absolute atmospheric pressure for 120 minutes; subjects were treated 5 days a week for 4 consecutive weeks. Both groups received standard wound care including debridement of necrotic tissue, topical therapy for Wagner grade 2 DFUs, dietary control and pharmacotherapy to maintain optimal blood glucose levels. Wound physiological indices were measured and blood tests (eg, markers of inflammation) were undertaken. Health-related quality of life was measured using the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form.


Complete DFU closure was achieved in 5 patients (25%) in the HBOT group (n = 20) versus 1 participant (5.5%) in the routine care group (n = 18) (P = .001). The amputation rate was 5% for the HBOT group and 11% for the routine care group (χ = 15.204, P = .010). The HBOT group showed statistically significant improvements in inflammation index, blood flow, and health-related quality of life from pretreatment to 2 weeks after the last therapy ended (P < .05). Hemoglobin A1c was significantly lower in the HBOT group following treatment (P < .05) but not in the routine care group.


Adjunctive HBOT improved wound healing in persons with DFU. Therapy also reduced the risk of amputation of the affected limb. We assert that at least 20 HBOT sessions are required to be effective.

Ostomy Wound Manage. 2016 May;62(5):32-6.

Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for the Adjunctive Treatment of Pyoderma Gangrenosum: A Case Report.

Chiang IHLiao YSDai NTChiao HYChou CYChen SGChen TMChang SC.


Pyoderma gangrenosum (PG) is a neutrophilic dermatosis of unknown etiology characterized by an ulcerative skin condition and confirmed through a diagnosis of exclusion. Management usually consists of systemic drug therapy, such as corticosteroids, sulfones, or immunosuppressants, either alone or in combination. Long-term use of these medications often has untold side effects. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) has been shown effective in the treatment of PG, reducing pain and tempering the need for medication. A case is presented of a 54-year-old woman with diabetes, hypertension, and a peptic ulcer who presented with painful, purulent ulcers on her buttocks, hands, and lower extremities of 2 weeks' duration. She was ultimately diagnosed with PG and provided 20 mg/day of oral prednisone for 1 week, tapered to 10 mg/day in the next week and then stopped.

In addition, she received 12 sessions of HBOT - she breathed in 100% oxygen under 2.5 atmospheres absolute pressure for 90 minutes over 2 weeks. Her wounds healed without scarring. This excellent outcome including good wound healing, decreased pain, and reduced doses of systemic corticosteroids warrants additional study of the adjunctive use of HBOT for PG.

Diabetes Care. 2016 Mar;39(3):392-9. doi: 10.2337/dc15-2001. Epub 2016 Jan 6.

Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy Does Not Reduce Indications for Amputation in Patients With Diabetes With Nonhealing Ulcers of the Lower Limb: A Prospective, Double-Blind, Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial.

Fedorko L1, Bowen JM2, Jones W3, Oreopoulos G3, Goeree R2, Hopkins RB2, O'Reilly DJ2.

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Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) is used for the treatment of chronic diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs). The controlled evidence for the efficacy of this treatment is limited. The goal of this study was to assess the efficacy of HBOT in reducing the need for major amputation and improving wound healing in patients with diabetes and chronic DFUs.


Patients with diabetes and foot lesions (Wagner grade 2-4) of at least 4 weeks' duration participated in this study. In addition to comprehensive wound care, participants were randomly assigned to receive 30 daily sessions of 90 min of HBOT (breathingoxygen at 244 kPa) or sham (breathing air at 125 kPa). Patients, physicians, and researchers were blinded to group assignment. At 12 weeks postrandomization, the primary outcome was freedom from meeting the criteria for amputation as assessed by a vascular surgeon. Secondary outcomes were measures of wound healing.


One hundred fifty-seven patients were assessed for eligibility, with 107 randomly assigned and 103 available for end point adjudication. Criteria for major amputation were met in 13 of 54 patients in the sham group and 11 of 49 in the HBOT group (odds ratio 0.91 [95% CI 0.37, 2.28], P = 0.846). Twelve (22%) patients in the sham group and 10 (20%) in the HBOT group were healed (0.90 [0.35, 2.31], P = 0.823). All other indices of wound healing were also not statistically significantly different between groups.


HBOT does not offer an additional advantage to comprehensive wound care in reducing the indication for amputation or facilitating wound healing in patients with chronic DFUs.


Metabolism. 2016 Apr;65(4):569-73. doi: 10.1016/j.metabol.2015.12.014. Epub 2016 Jan 7.

Anti-TNFα treatment for recalcitrant ulcerative necrobiosis lipoidica diabeticorum: A case report and review of the literature.

Basoulis D1, Fragiadaki K2, Tentolouris N3, Sfikakis PP4, Kokkinos A5.

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Necrobiosis lipoidica diabeticorum (NLD) is a rare degenerative connective tissue disorder associated with diabetes mellitus, which usually presents with red papules or plaques with raised edges and occasional ulceration. Ulcerating NLD is notoriously difficult to treat. We present a young patient with ulcerative NLD who was successfully treated with the anti-TNFα agent infliximab. Case presentation is followed by a review of therapeutic TNFα blockade in NLD.


A 17-year old woman with type 1 diabetes since the age of 8, presented with a long-standing and extensively ulcerated and infected NLD lesion on her left shin. After achieving better glycemic control and treating her for infection of the wound, several NLD treatments failed to help, including corticosteroids and hyperbaric oxygen. She was treated successfully with 4 monthly sessions of 5mg/kg body weight intravenous infliximab, achieving complete resolution of ulceration.


A multitude of available treatments have been suggested for NLD over the past decades, based on two axes, one through wound healing and the other through immunosuppression. Anti-TNFα agents are relatively new drugs that brought a revolution in chronic inflammatory diseases and have been on the rise as novel potential treatments for NLD. Three out of the five available anti-TNFα agents have been safely tested so far, both topically and systematically, with mostly favorable results.


Intravenous infliximab was successful in the treatment of recalcitrant ulcerating NLD in our patient. Taken together with an increasing number of similar reports revealing a pathogenetic role of TNFα in NLD, we suggest that anti-TNFα agents are promising drugs in the management of this condition.